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开放政府数据评估框架、指标与方法研究

Study on the Frameworks,Indices and Methods of Open Government Data

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【作者】 郑磊关文雯

【Author】 Zheng Lei;Guan Wenwen;School of International Relations and Public Affairs,Fudan University;

【机构】 复旦大学国际关系与公共事务学院;

【摘要】 [目的 /意义]随着开放政府数据实践在全球范围的兴起,对其开展的评估项目也不断出现。对这些评估项目进行比较分析和框架构建,以期为我国乃至全球开展的开放政府数据评估项目提供有益借鉴,推动开放政府数据实践。[方法 /过程]通过对具代表性的11个国内外评估项目进行梳理和整理,分析其评估框架、指标和方法,初步构建起系统全面的评估框架。[结果 /结论]研究发现,目前开放政府数据评估项目的指标体系主要包含"基础""平台""数据""使用"和"效果"5个维度。大多数现有评估项目主要围绕"数据"和"基础"两个层面进行评估,强调数据的格式标准和质量,并注重对政府部门推动数据开放的组织管理能力和相关法制建设进行评估。对于"平台""使用""效果"3个层面的评估,则随着开放政府数据项目发展阶段的不同而有所侧重。现有的评估项目大都是定性和定量方法相结合,通过问卷调查、数据抓取、访谈和专家评估等方法采集主客观数据。

【Abstract】 [Purpose/significance]With the development of open government data practices around the world,assessments on open data practices increasingly emerge. Comparing and analyzing those assessment projects and further building up frameworks accordingly could provide meaningful references for future assessment projects,and thus foster open government data practices. [Method/process]The paper examined 11 representative assessment projects by analyzing their frameworks,indices and methods and further built up a comprehensive assessment framework. The paper identified five key dimensions in current assessment frameworks including Readiness,Platform,Data,Use and Effect. [Result/conclusion]The study finds that most current assessment projects focus on Data and Readiness,emphasizing assessments on the format,standard and quality of data,the organizational and managerial competence of the government and the legal framework in fostering open data. The assessment on Platform,Use and Effect,however,varies based on the particular development stage of open data practices. Most assessments adopt both qualitative and quantitative methods,and collect subjective and objective data through questionnaires,observation,interviews,and expert review.

【关键词】 开放政府数据; 评估; 框架; 指标; 方法;

【Key words】 open government data; assessment; framework; index; method;

【分类号】R-054;R-058;

【基金】 2014国家自然科学基金项目“大数据背景下开放政府数据的因素与机理研究:系统动力学建模与政策仿真”(项目编号:71473048)研究成果之一

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