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黄芪多糖在免疫调节方面的最新研究进展

Advances on Immunoregulation Effect of Astragalus Polysaccharides

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【作者】 李钦胡继宏高博李海东宋爽杨丽霞

【Author】 LI Qin;HU Ji-hong;GAO Bo;LI Hai-dong;SONG Shuang;YANG Li-xia;Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) School of Gansu Province;Gansu University of TCM;Kang Rong Co.Ltd.of TCM;Research Institute of TCM in Gansu Province;

【机构】 甘肃省中医学校;甘肃中医药大学;康荣中药材科技有限公司;甘肃省中医药研究院;

【摘要】 黄芪是药食两用的补气中药,黄芪多糖(APS)是其含量最高的生物活性成分。APS具有多重功效,近年来尤以免疫调节为研究热点。大量研究证明,APS在体内和体外均具有显著的免疫调节作用,不经仅对免疫抑制动物模型有明显作用,而且能增强正常动物的免疫作用。当前,对APS的研究多局限于其本身结构,主要作为免疫佐剂及动物饲料添加剂被广泛使用,应用范围较狭窄,缺乏深度挖掘开发和科学研究。近年来,学术界对APS免疫调节作用的研究有所拓宽,逐渐采用不同改性方法对其结构进行修饰,并研究各种改性产物对机体免疫效果的影响机制及其量效关系,并在肿瘤免疫、抗病毒免疫及免疫相关基因的调控等方面做出了有益的探索。本文归纳了APS对器官免疫、细胞免疫、细胞因子和胞内信使物质、肿瘤免疫、抗病毒免疫方面的作用,化学结构及分子修饰对APS免疫活性的作用,以及APS对免疫相关基因的调控等7个领域的最新研究成果。今后,应加强对分离、纯化后的均一组分低分子量APS及APS结构特点与免疫调节作用的构效关系及作用靶点方面的研究,结合化学修饰探讨APS调节机体免疫的深刻机制,通过单体效价研究提高其有效摄入量,增强机体免疫的效果,加强APS作为人体免疫佐剂的潜力开发,推广其临床应用,将黄芪多糖的应用领域由现在的以兽药畜牧业为主逐渐拓宽至医药治疗方面。

【Abstract】 Astragali Radix is a Chinese herbal medicine which is used for both medicine and food.astragalus polysaccharide( APS) is the highest bioactive component. APS has multiple effects,especially in recent years,immune regulation as a research focus. A large number of studies have shown that APS in vivo and in vitro have significant immune regulation,not only on the immunosuppressed animal model has a significant role,but also enhance the immune function of normal animals. At present,the research on APS is mostly confined to its own structure. It is widely used as immune adjuvant and animal feed additive. Its application scope is narrow and lacks deep excavation and scientific research. In recent years, the research of APS immunoregulation has been broadened,and its structure has been modified by different modification methods. The effect mechanism and the dose-effect relationship of various modified products on immune function have been studied. Tumor immunity,antivirus immunity and immune-related gene regulation and so made a useful exploration. The effects of APS on organ immunity,cellular immunity,cytokines and intracellular messengers,tumor immunity,antiviral immunity,APS immunoreactivity and APS regulation on immune-related genes were summarized. 7 areas of the latest research results. In the future,we should strengthen the separation and purification of low molecular weight APS and APS structure characteristics and immune regulation of the structure-activity relationship and the role of target research,combined with chemical modification of APS regulation of the body’s immune mechanism,to enhance its effective intake of the body to enhance the effect of immunity,to strengthen the potential of APS as a human immune adjuvant to promote its clinical application,the application of astragalus polysaccharides from the present to the veterinary animal husbandry and gradually broaden to the medical treatment.

【关键词】 黄芪多糖; 器官免疫; 细胞免疫; 细胞因子; 信使物质; 肿瘤免疫; 抗病毒免疫; 基因调控;

【Key words】 astragalus polysaccharides; immune organs; immune cells; cytokines; intracellular messengers; tumor immunity; antiviral immunity; gene regulation;

【分类号】R392.114;R284.141;R392.12;

【基金】 国家自然科学基金项目(81260597);甘肃省中医药管理局科研项目(GZK-2015-45)

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