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我国白内障的流行病学调查资料分析

Data analysis on epidemiologic survey of cataract in China

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【作者】 张士元

【Author】 ZHANG Shiyuan. Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing 100730

【机构】 北京眼科研究所!100005

【摘要】 目的 探讨我国白内障的患病率与各地检查条件、诊断标准及地理环境的关系。方法采用世界卫生组织盲与低视力标准,对全国抽样调查资料进行统计学分析。结果 双眼视力< 03的白内障患者约500 万人,患病率为046 % ;盲与低视力的患病率分别为043 % 和058% 。盲人中白内障致盲占4106 % ;低视力患者中4938 % 为白内障所致;白内障致老年盲( 年龄≥60 岁) 及低视力占7313 % 。以晶体混浊及视力< 07 为标准,北京郊区抽样调查白内障的患病率为599 % ;女性明显多于男性。1997 年对北京郊区年龄≥50 岁的5 084 人进行抽样调查,双眼矫正视力< 01 者的白内障患病率为222 % 。白内障患病率在中国南部低纬度地区、尤其高原地带( 如广东069 % 、西藏104 % ) ,明显高于北方高纬度地区( 如黑龙江026% ) 。对海拔高度及日照时间不同的地区、年龄≥40 岁的人群白内障患病率的比较研究发现,海拔高、日照时间长的地区白内障患病率明显增高。结论 日照时间长、紫外线辐射量大是白内障发病的危险因素;白内障是我国第一位的致盲眼病

【Abstract】 Objective To approach the prevalence of age related cataract and its relationships with the condition of examination, diagnostic criteria and geographical environment in various areas. Methods According to the WHO’s criteria of blindness and low vision, a statistical analysis of a national sample survey of blindness and low vision was carried out over the country. Results The number of patients with age related cataract and visual acuity <0.3 in both eyes calculated in the whole population was more than 5 million, the prevalence being 0.46%. The prevalence of blindness and that of low vision were 0.43% and 0.58% respectively. Among the blind, 41.06% was caused by cataract, and the low vision caused by cataract was 49.38%. Among elderly of ≥60 years, the proportion of the blind and low vision caused by cataract was 73.13%. When the cataract standard was defined as lens opacity with visual acuity <0.7, the prevalence of cataract was 5.99% in Beijing sample survey at the suburb area. The incidence of age related cataract in females was significantly higher than that in males. In a survey of Beijing suburb in 1997, the prevalence of cataract among 5 084 elderly people of ≥50 years with bilateral corrected visual acuity <0.1 was 2.22%. In the southern part of China, the area of low latitude, especially in the plateau, such as in Guangdong Province (0.69%) and in Tibet (1.04%), the prevalence of cataract is much higher than that in northern part, high latitude areas, such as Heilongjiang Province (0.26%). A comparative study of the cataract prevalence of elderly ≥40 years in the areas of different levels above the sea and sunshine times, it shows that the higher level above the sea and longer sunshine time the higher cataract prevalence. Conclusions A longer sunshine time and a larger amount of ultraviolet irradiation are considered as the risk factors of cataract. Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and the low vision in China.

【关键词】 白内障; 流行病学;

【Key words】 Cataract Epidemiology;

【分类号】R776.1;R181.13;R195.4;

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