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中国听力残疾构成特点及康复对策

An epidemiological study on the hearing-impaired population identified in China and proposed intervention strategies

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【作者】 孙喜斌于丽玫曲成毅梁巍王琦魏志云

【Author】 SUN Xi-bin, YU Li-mei, QU Cheng-yi, LIANG Wei, WANG Qi, WEI Zhi-yun

【机构】 中国聋儿康复研究中心山西医科大学公共卫生学院山西医科大学公共卫生学院 北京100029北京100029太原030001

【摘要】 目的通过对全国第二次残疾人抽样调查所获得的基础数据进行分析,掌握听力残疾群体的规模、分布、残疾等级及年龄特点,为制订听力残疾的康复策略提供依据。方法依据全国第二次残疾人抽样调查数据库资料,按照描述现状→分析原因→提出对策的思维模式,提出适合于中国国情的听力残疾防治对策。结果全国听力残疾(含多重残疾)人共2780万,其中单纯听力残疾人2004万,多重残疾人中有听力残疾人776万。听力残疾现残率为2.11%,其中城市现残率为1.79%,农村现残率为2.27%,农村高于城市。听力残疾(含多重残疾)以60岁及以上老年人为主,占73.58%,其次是15~59岁组,占24.89%,7~14岁组占1.04%,0~6岁组占0.49%。60岁及以上组听力残疾三、四级占79.13%,4~6岁组一、二级残疾占67.36%,0~3岁组一、二级残疾占83.90%,可见听力残疾在老年人中以轻、中度聋居多,在儿童中以重度、极重度聋居多;15岁及以上人群以单纯听力残疾为主,占72.65%,0~14岁听力残疾以多重残疾为主,占64.55%;农村听力残疾发生危险性是城市的1.27倍。对策面对2780万庞大的听力残疾群体,亟待建立健全社会保障和专业技术社区服务网络体系。

【Abstract】 Objective To provide a basis for policy making and strategy formulating related to prevention and rehabilitation of hearing impairment through in-depth analysis of status quo, causes of hearing impairment and rehabilitation demands that were identified by China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006. Methods According to the findings of the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, countermeasures and suggestions for prevention and rehabilitation of hearing impairment are proposed in accordance with China’s practical situation. Results Among 27.80 million hearing-impaired people, 20.04 million are hearing impaired alone while 7.76 million with multi-disabilities. The prevalence of hearing impairment is 2.11% throughout China, with 1.79% in urban areas and 2.27% in rural areas. Grade III and VI hearing impairment account for 79.13% for the age group of 60 and above, Grade I and II for 67.36% in the age group of 4~6 and 83.90% in the age group of 0~3. Accordingly, the elderly group suffers more with mild to moderate hearing impairment while children have predominantly severe to profound hearing impairment. A future breakdown of the age groups indicate that hearing-impaired people aged 15 and above mostly have hearing disability alone, making up 72.65% and those aged 0~14 mostly have multi-disabilities, accounting for 64.55%. The incidence of hearing impairment in rural area is 1.27 times as much as that of the urban area. Strategies Through analysis of the findings in the survey of 27.80 million hearing-impaired people, corresponding rehabilitation strategies are formulated for the hearing-impaired people according to the age and regional characteristics.

【关键词】 听力残疾; 第二次残疾人抽样调查; 康复对策;

【Key words】 Hearing impairment; The Second China National Sample Survey on Disability; Rehabilitation strategies;

【分类号】R339.16;R491;R493.2;

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