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抗阿尔茨海默病天然产物及其药理学研究进展

Pharmacological research of natural products in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

【作者】 李琳王晓良彭英

【Author】 LI Lin;WANG Xiao-liang;PENG Ying;Institute of Materia Medica,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College;

【机构】 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院药物研究所

【摘要】 阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer’s disease,AD),即老年性痴呆是一种与年龄高度相关,以进行性认知障碍和记忆力损害为主的中枢神经系统退行性疾病。目前临床上常用的抗AD药物有多奈哌齐、加兰他敏及美金刚等,但其只能够改善中轻度AD患者的症状,并不能预防、终止和逆转AD进程的发展。因此,寻找有效预防、改善和治疗AD的药物迫在眉睫。我国运用中药治疗AD的历史悠久,且中药资源丰富,因此从天然产物中筛选和开发疗效确切、安全无毒的防治AD的药物具有得天独厚的优势。众多学者已经从中药及其有效成分着手进行了广泛的研究。该文将对石杉碱甲、银杏叶提取物、左旋丁基苯酞、二苯乙烯苷、人参皂苷等天然产物在AD治疗中的应用及已经完成的临床前研究进行综述。

【Abstract】 Alzheimer s disease(AD),a central nervous system degenerative disease,is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and memory damage.Although intensive research leads to a better understanding of AD pathology,no new medicines are found to prevent,delay or stop the progression of AD.Three cholinesterase inhibitors(donepezil,rivastigmine and galantamine) and an N-methyl D-aspartase NMDA receptor antagonist,memantine have been approved in clinic for AD treatment,but these treatments only have modest symptomatic effects for relatively short time periods.Therefore,to find effective medicines to prevent,improve and treat AD is urgent.It is well known,the traditional Chinese medicine resources are abundant in China.Chinese medicines,including the active ingredients and compounds,have been used in dementia treatment for a long history.The review is aimed to summarize the application and related mechanisms of natural products such as huperzine A,ginsenosides,L-3-n-butylphathlide,TSG and so on in AD treatment.

【关键词】 阿尔茨海默病; 天然产物; 石杉碱甲; 银杏叶提取物左旋丁基苯酞; 二苯乙烯苷; 人参皂苷;

【Key words】 Alzheimer s disease; natural products; huperzine A; extracts of ginkgobilobaleaves; L-3-n-butylphathlide; TSG; ginsenosides;

【分类号】R749.16;R284.14;R392.116;

【基金】 国家自然科学基金资助项目(No 81473200);教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(No NECT-10-0961);国家科技部“重大新药创制”科技重大专项(No 2012ZX09301002-004);新药作用机制研究与药效评价北京市重点实验室(No BZ0150)

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